OSU13-Generalized Failure.pdf

What is failure? Is insulation an analogue for all failure materials? Electric energy is measured with only three quantities – voltage, current, and time. The product of the three parameters is energy. Failure is the process of reducing the energy in a system. The three failure modes directly correspond to the three measured parameters. Voltage failure arises from loss of insulation. Current failure arises from a change in resistance. Time related failures take on forms from cyclic time or frequency and mass-diffusion time or deterioration.
The three influences on failures of insulation are material, manufacture, and environment. The insulation is made up of material, contamination, and voids. The manufacturing interface consists of the interstices, outerstices, initiation, termination, and joint. The environmental factors include the atmosphere and load. Each of these provides a path for failure.
Evaluation of failures typically uses low energy DC, high voltage DC, and partial discharge which provides the most information. PD info includes inception voltage and, extinction voltage of the carrier as well as level, frequency, and phase angle of the discharge signal. Low noise laboratory and preparation of the test samples determine the effectiveness of the evaluation.

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