In pre-Greek history, the common scientific hypothesis was that the earth was flat. Columbus’ trip to the New World would expectedly have permanently changed that. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has become accepted scientific “fact” in the majority of electrical practitioners including engineers. This rather obtuse observation is based on a simple premise: the ground is the reference of all electrical measurement and is therefore assumed to be equipotential. Numerous references including our papers have advocated an equipotential grounding solution, but these do not assume the earth is uniform [1,2,3,4]. The references include the National Electrical Code [5], NFPA 780 [6], and IEEE 80 [7]. The NEC requires less than 25 Ohm ground connection. By definition, 25 Ohms will yield a significant voltage difference for any circuit. Unbalanced and circulating current are carried through the earth path. If there is current flow, there cannot be a zero voltage difference. If there is not zero voltage difference, there is not an equal potential. The paper addresses obtaining an equipotential ground plane in the presence of an unequal potential earth. The resolution of this issue and controlling current flow in the earth is critical to the safety of life forms, prevention of fires, and mitigation of lightning risks. Actual photos illustrate problems with unbalanced and inadequate ground paths that have resulted in fires we have investigated

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